Ancient Times

  • Ancient Coin Images on Modern Coins (The following coins show images of women: of women from ancient times, followed by their counterparts from modernity. As the comparison shows, surprisingly little has changed in the meantime... )
  • Alexander the Great - the Father of the First Single Currency (Alexander the Great is of big importance to the history of coinage. This coin tour shows their geographical spread.) 
  • Caesar, His Allies and His Enemies (In the year 44 BC, events rushed in Rome which also impacted coinage. At the beginning of that year – just weeks before his death – Caesar issued a series of coins that carried his portrait. For the first time, the image of a living Roman was minted on a Roman coin: this represented a milestone in Roman coinage ...)
  • Hellenistic Coin Images ("You shall not make for yourself an image of God," it says in the Bible. This was completely different in ancient Greece, where it was customary to mint coins with the image of a deity. The Hellenistic rulers changed this ...) 
  • The World’s Oldest Currency System (It is customary today that the euro or the dollar are divided into 100 cents, and that we can pay a certain sum with different coin units. It was the legendary king Croesus of Lydia who first developed a monetary system with different denominations related to each other. His innovation meant an eminent simplification of trade – since then, goods are not bartered any more, but paid for with coin.) 
  • The Aureus - a Golden Newspaper (A portrait on the obverse and political programs on the reverse – that was what the gold coins of the Roman emperors usually looked like. The gold pieces of the Roman Empire were called aurei and not only used for payments, but also to spread news). 
  • China’s First Emperor (He was a prisoner's son and a small states' king. By subjugating the states of fragmented ancient China he founded a new empire. In spite of the fact, that the reign of his dynasty would endure no longer than 15 years, the rule of the First Emperor turned out to have a huge impact on Chinese history.) 
  • The Denarius - the Main Currency of Roman Times (The denarius was the most important silver coin in ancient Rome for almost 500 years.) 
  • The Mysterious World of Celtic Coins (Coins were developed about 650 BC on the western coast of modern Turkey. From there, they quickly spread to the east and the west, and toward the end of the 5th century BC coins reached the Celtic tribes living in central Europe.) 
  • The Most Beautiful Greek Coins in the MoneyMuseum (No other people has influenced European culture so significantly and so lastingly as the Greeks.) 
  • Greek Bronze Coin Money for Daily Life (Who does not know the custom to differentiate between Sunday and working-day dresses? Something similar exits with money. For example in ancient Greece: The bronze coins were kind of working-day cash with which one went to the market. The large silver coins, however, were used for more important business transactions. He who thinks that these were also more beautiful, is mistaken. The small coins were minted just as carefully as the prestige coinages.) 
  • Celtic Coins and their Archetypes (The Celts dominated vast parts of Europe from the beginning of the 5th century BC. On their campaigns they clashed with the Etruscans, the Romans and the Greeks, they fought as mercenaries under Philip II and Alexander the Great. On their campaigns the Celts encountered many exotic things – coins, for instance.) 
  • Mildenberg’s Dream Collection ("The collection that I dreamed about is the one I would put together if I were a collector and the prices not so exorbitant. Nevertheless, I can enjoy their beauty by looking at their pictures, be they in black and white or in color.") 
  • Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's...” (They are demanded from all of us: when buying coffee, a computer, a gift of flowers or furniture for the home. They fall due when you switch on the light and when you take out insurance. It is impossible to overlook them on your pay slip: taxes. For over 5000 years they have been demanded from people and, if need be, collected by force.) 
  • Money in Times of War (War figures prominently in the history of money. After all, money and war are closely linked: money has often been created precisely in order to wage a war. And money is an ideal medium for propaganda. Thus it is no surprise to observe that issuing money has thrived during times of war.) 
  • Coins from the Foot of Mount Aetna (The modern city of Catania on the foot of Mount Etna has a turbulent history. Settlers from the Sicilian city of Naxos founded the town in the 8th century BC under the name of Katane. On the one hand, its history was influenced by Mount Etna, the volcano to which Katane owed the fertility of its hinterland, but which destroyed the town repeatedly.) 
  • Olympics Money for the Event (The Olympic games have been a lucrative business since ancient times. They were held from about 776 BC every four years, in summer on the sacred grove of Olympia, in the region of Elis on the Peloponnesus. Already back then, the Olympics were not only a sportive event, but also a cultural and political forum.) 
  • Roman Coins - Mass Media for Image Cultivation (Unlike modern coins, Roman money was characterized by an enormous diversity of coin images. This reflected not so much the desire for change, however, but rather an often very purposeful policy of concrete self-interests.) 
  • Currencies of the Classical World (The list of currencies represented at the MoneyMuseum doesn’t quite reach from A to Z, but almost from antoninianus to uncia.)  
  • A Journey in Pictures through the Mystery Religions (The time of the Roman Empire was not unlike today in that the official churches are losing more and more members and esoteric and Christian sects are gaining ground: many people – from time immemorial accustomed to living in a close relationship to their world of gods – were disappointed by the Roman religion and turned increasingly to the mystery cults. It was in these that they found the support they were yearning for. The influence of these cults on Christianity is actually unmistakable – and yet they symbolise a completely different world of its own).
  • A Journey in Pictures through Greek Religion (The respects in which the Western world, characterised by Christianity, and Islam differ and resemble one another are today an almost continuous subject of discussion. But where Christianity has its own roots has almost been forgotten ... read further).
  • A Journey in Pictures through Roman Religion (What is god? As far as the Romans are concerned we think we know that all too well from our unloved Latin lessons: Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, the Roman Triad as well as the usual gods of the ancient world, the same as the Greek gods in name and effect. In fact, however, the roots of Roman religion lie much earlier, much deeper, in dark, prehistoric times ...)
  • A Journey in Pictures Christianity Conquers Rome (What is god? A Roman who believed in the state gods and a Roman who believed in Christianity would have answered this question quite differently - The Roman and Christian understanding of god was so different that the one was not prepared to yield to the other peacefully. How and why, however, did it come about that Christianity replaced the Roman cults?) 
  • Best of Europe I - Europe’s Most Beautiful Coins from Antiquity to the Renaissance (Welcome to "Best of Europe I." Here I want to show you Europe's most beautiful coins from the beginnings in antiquity to the Renaissance, the rebirth of antiquity. Beauty is a matter of taste rather than an objective criterium. How do you judge a coin's beauty and expressive power?)  
  • Alexander the Great (by Peter Boccarius; No other conqueror was so young and at the same time so powerful. How did Alexander the Great manage to found a world empire in only ten years? Here an attempt to find out in six questions and answers.)
  • Atlantis: A Lost Civilisation in Western Asia Minor (by Eberhard Zangger; If people are asked who or what is meant by “Atlantis”, their answers range from “a myth”, “a utopia”, or “a Sixties hit” to “a search for what is lost”, “the description of the end of the world”, “dreams of the next world” and “a legendary city that was destroyed in classical Greece”.) 
  • Marriage in Classical Athens – in the Service of the State (by Maria Dettenhofer; In Classical Athens, the human dimension was irrelevant to the purpose and object of a marriage. What was decisive was the function marriage played in Athenian civil law – it became an instrument of the new system of government: democracy.) 
  • Marriage in Classical Rome – just a Tiresome Necessity? (by Maria Dettenhofer; As in Athens, marriage in Rome was originally based on custom and tradition. But in contrast to Athens, the political system scarcely affected the nature of marriage. Only on the change from the republic to the empire did interference in private life become clearly detectable.)
  • Woman in Classical Greece (by Cornelia Isler-Kerényi; One of the most characteristic features of any culture is the position it assigns to women and the relationship it maintains between the sexes.) 


Signet Sunflower Foundation